- Guide to PHARMACOLOGY
Compound class: Endogenous peptide in human, mouse or rat
Comment: CXCL12-γ is produced by alternative splicing of the CXCL12 gene and it is almost twice as large as CXCL12α and CXCL12β. It is a low affinity CXCR4 agonist and has limited signal transduction capacity. Expression of this γ isoform is mainly restricted to regions of adult brain and heart in humans and rats. In the mouse heart, CXCL12-γ localises to the nucleus via canonical nuclear localization signals and to the nucleolus via a specific nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in its unique C-terminal region . This suggests an intracellular signalling function for this isoform, which would make it unique amongst all of the known chemokines.
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The CXCL12gamma chemokine displays unprecedented structural and functional properties that make it a paradigm of chemoattractant proteins.
PLoS ONE, 3 (7): e2543. [PMID:18648536]
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CXCL12-γ expression is inhibited in neuroinflammation.
Brain Res., 1519: 120-6. [PMID:23651977]
3. Torres R, Ramirez JC. (2009)
A chemokine targets the nucleus: Cxcl12-gamma isoform localizes to the nucleolus in adult mouse heart.
PLoS ONE, 4 (10): e7570. [PMID:19859557]
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Identification and expression of novel isoforms of human stromal cell-derived factor 1.
Gene, 374: 174-9. [PMID:16626895]