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Catecholamine turnover C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).

Overview

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Catecholamines are defined by the presence of two adjacent hydroxyls on a benzene ring with a sidechain containing an amine. The predominant catacholamines in mammalian biology are the neurotransmitter/hormones dopamine, (-)-noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and (-)-adrenaline (epinephrine). These hormone/transmitters are synthesized by sequential metabolism from L-phenylalanine via L-tyrosine. Hydroxylation of L-tyrosine generates levodopa, which is decarboxylated to form dopamine. Hydroxylation of the ethylamine sidechain generates (-)-noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which can be methylated to form (-)-adrenaline (epinephrine). In particular neuronal and adrenal chromaffin cells, the catecholamines dopamine, (-)-noradrenaline and (-)-adrenaline are accumulated into vesicles under the influence of the vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1/SLC18A1 and VMAT2/SLC18A2). After release into the synapse or the bloodstream, catecholamines are accumulated through the action cell-surface transporters, primarily the dopamine (DAT/SLC6A3) and norepinephrine transporter (NET/SLC6A2). The primary routes of metabolism of these catecholamines are oxidation via monoamine oxidase activities of methylation via catechol O-methyltransferase.

Enzymes

2496
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L-Phenylalanine hydroxylase C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

TAT (Tyrosine aminotransferase) C Show summary »

L-Tyrosine hydroxylase C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

AADC (L-Aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase ) C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

DBH (Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase)) C Show summary »

PNMT (Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase) C Show summary »


Target Id 2496
Nomenclature Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
Common abbreviation PNMT
Previous and unofficial names Noradrenaline N-methyltransferase | PENT | PNMTase
Genes PNMT (Hs), Pnmt (Mm), Pnmt (Rn)
Ensembl ID ENSG00000141744 (Hs), ENSMUSG00000038216 (Mm), ENSRNOG00000046057 (Rn)
UniProtKB AC P11086 (Hs), P40935 (Mm), P10937 (Rn)
EC number
2.1.1.28 (-)-Noradrenaline -> (-)-adrenaline
Cofactors
S-adenosyl methionine
Inhibitors
LY134046 pKi 7.6 [9]

COMT (Catechol-O-methyltransferase) C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

MAO-A (Monoamine oxidase A) C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

MAO-B (Monoamine oxidase B) C Show summary » More detailed page go icon to follow link

Further reading

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References

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

Catecholamine turnover. Accessed on 26/09/2022. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/FamilyDisplayForward?familyId=766.

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SP, Fabbro D, Kelly E, Mathie A, Peters JA, Veale EL et al. (2021) THE CONCISE GUIDE TO PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22: Enzymes. Br J Pharmacol. 178 Suppl 1:S313-S411.