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Volume regulated chloride channels (VRAC) C

Unless otherwise stated all data on this page refer to the human proteins. Gene information is provided for human (Hs), mouse (Mm) and rat (Rn).


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Volume activated chloride channels (also termed VSOAC, volume-sensitive organic osmolyte/anion channel; VRC, volume regulated channel and VSOR, volume expansion-sensing outwardly rectifying anion channel) participate in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in response to cell swelling. VRAC may also be important for several other processes including the regulation of membrane excitability, transcellular Cl- transport, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, necrosis, apoptosis, glutamate release from astrocytes, insulin (INS, P01308) release from pancreatic β cells and resistance to the anti-cancer drug, cisplatin (reviewed by [1-4]). VRAC may not be a single entity, but may instead represent a number of different channels that are expressed to a variable extent in different tissues and are differentially activated by cell swelling. In addition to ClC-3 expression products (see above) several former VRAC candidates including MDR1 (ABCB1 P-glycoprotein), Icln, Band 3 anion exchanger and phospholemman are also no longer considered likely to fulfil this function (see reviews [3,5]).

Channels and Subunits

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How to cite this family page

Database page citation:

Volume regulated chloride channels (VRAC). Accessed on 21/06/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,

Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY citation:

Alexander SPH, Mathie AA, Peters JA, Veale EL, Striessnig J, Kelly E, Armstrong JF, Faccenda E, Harding SD, Davies JA et al. (2023) The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2023/24: Ion channels. Br J Pharmacol. 180 Suppl 2:S145-S222.