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Atopic dermatitis

Disease ID:94
Name:Atopic dermatitis
Associated with:2 targets
1 immuno-relevant target
17 immuno-relevant ligands
Database Links
Disease Ontology: DOID:3310
OMIM: 603165


BLT1 receptor
References:  16
Comments:  Target of activating compounds with potential immunosuppressant action. Phase 2 with rosiptor has been completed for atopic dermatitis.
Ligand interactions: 
Ligand Comments
Phase 2 clinical trial NCT02324972 completed.


Key to terms and symbols Click ligand name to view ligand summary Click column headers to sort
Ligand References Clinical and Disease comments
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 3 clinical candidate for atopic dermatitis (see NCT03131648).
Clinical Use: Tralokinumab was investigated in clinical trials for efficacy in patienst with uncontrolled asthma, atopic dermatitis, and alopecia areata. Click here to link to's listing of Phase 3 tralokinumab trials. In addition, Phase 2 trials evaluated tralokinumab as a treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, NCT01629667 and NCT02036580). Business reports online indicate that AstraZeneca discontinued tralokinumab development for asthma as it showed no benefit over placebo in their STRATOS 2 and TROPOS late-stage asthma trials [1].
The EMA approved LEO Pharma's tralokinumab product Adtralza® in July 2021, as a treatment for severe atopic dermatitis that cannot be controlled by topical drugs. FDA approval for this indication followed at the end of 2021. | View clinical data
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 3 clinical candidate for atopic dermatitis.
Clinical Use: A Phase 3 clinical study evaluating PAC-14028 vs. atopic dermatitis is underway (see NCT02965118). Phase 2 studies for rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis and skin pruritus have been completed. | View clinical data
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical candidate for atopic dermatitis.
Clinical Use: A Phase 2 clinical trial evaluating ALX-101 as a topical treatment for moderate atopic dermatitis is underway (see NCT03175354). | View clinical data
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 1 clinical candidate for atopic dermatitis- NCT02466152
Clinical Use: Topically applied tapinarof (research code GSK2894512) demonstrated clinical efficacy in Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials in patients with plaque psoriasis (PS) [5,11]. Tapinarof has also completed Phase 1 studies for atopic dermatitis. The first FDA approval (May 2022) authorised use of tapinarof (Vtama®) as a treament for PS. Unlike steroid-based anti-inflammatory drugs that are used to treat PS, tapinarof has an unlimited duration of use and can be used on sensitive body areas. | View clinical data
Bioactivity Comments: Tapinarof inhibits proinflammatory cytokine expression in vitro and exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in vivo [23]. | View biological activity
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical candidate for atopic dermatitis- see NCT02914548
Clinical Use: OPA-15406 was advanced to clinical trials in adult and pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis. Click here to view's registered OPA-15406 trials. Positive Phase 2 trial results were published by Hanifin et al. in 2016 [9]. First approval was issued in Japan in September 2021, for a topical formulation (Moizerto®) as a treatment for atopic dermatitis. | View clinical data
Bioactivity Comments: OPA-15406 exhibits high selectivity for the PDE4B isoform [9]. | View biological activity
Immuno Disease Comments: Glucocorticoid drug used to treat many inflammatory condtions including allergic dermatitis.
Clinical Use: Hydrocortisone is used to treat many immune and allergic disorders, adrenal insufficiency disorders (eg Addison's disease), corticosteroid-responsive dermatological disorders (eg psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and contact dermatitis) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. | View clinical data
Immuno Disease Comments: IL-31 expression is elevated in inflammatory cells in atopic dermatitis.
Immuno Disease Comments: Dupilumab is approved to treat atopic dermatitis (eczema).
Clinical Use: Dupilumab was originally evaluated as a treatment for atopic allergic conditions, including asthma [29], atopic dermatitis (AD) and nasal polyposis [4]. A list of trials registered at is available here.
The first full regulatory approval for dupilumab was granted by the FDA in March 2017 and this was for the treatment of moderate-to-severe eczema (atopic dermatitis). The EMA granted this same approval in August 2017. In October 2018, FDA approval was expanded to encompass the treatment of patients with eosinophilic type or oral corticosteroid-dependent moderate-to-severe asthma. June 2019 saw FDA approval expanded to include treatment of patients with uncontrolled chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. | View clinical data
Bioactivity Comments: Affinity data in the table below is taken from patent US7608693 [12], using antibody clone H4H098P as a representative example of the embodiment of the patent. The clone becoming dupilumab is not reported. | View biological activity
Immuno Disease Comments: Clinical candidate for atopic dermatitis (Phase 1).
Clinical Use: Evauation of tezepelumab was continued in patients with severe asthma, but it failed to demonstrate efficacy in atopic dermatitis [2]. Tezepelumab was granted breakthrough designation by the FDA in September 2018 based on data from the Phase 2b PATHWAY study. Click here to link to's full listing of tezepelumab (research coded AMG 157 or MEDI9929) trials. The FDA granted full approval as a therapeutic option for severe asthma in December 2021. | View clinical data
JNJ-39758979 10,14
Immuno Disease Comments: Failed to show clinical efficiency in Phase 2 trial.
Clinical Use: Phase 2a clinical trial results in patients with moderate atopic dermatitis are published in [14] which indicate that the study did not meet its primary end-point, and produced drug-induced agranulocytosis, explaining its termination. Phase 2 trial NCT00946569 in asthma patients has been completed. | View clinical data
Bioactivity Comments: Preclinical data are reported in [26]. | View biological activity
Immuno Disease Comments: Approved drug for atopic dermatitis.
Clinical Use: Crisaborole (with research code AN2728) has completed Phase 3 clinical trials as a monotherapy for atopic dermatitis (NCT02118792 and NCT02118766) and has received FDA approval for treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis in December 2016. | View clinical data
Bioactivity Comments: Inhibits partially purified human PDE4 with an IC50 of 490nM, and inhibits cytokine release in vitro and in vivo [3]. | View biological activity
adriforant 30
Immuno Disease Comments: Completed Phase 2 trial in atopic dermatitis (see NCT02424253). Improvement in inflammatory AD lesions in response to ZPL-3893787 treatment in clinical trial was reported by Werrfel et al. (2018)
Clinical Use: ZPL-3893787 reached Phase 2 clinical trial for evaluation as an antiinflammatory agent in patients with plaque psoriasis (see NCT02618616), and a Phase 1 in atopic dermatitis has been completed. Although the compound was better than placebo at reducing eczema symptoms such as inflammation in a phase 2a study for moderate-severe atopic dermatitis, it failed to meet an itch-related endpoint. Novartis terminated their ZPL-3893787 programme in mid-2020. | View clinical data
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical trial NCT02324972 completed.
Clinical Use: AQX-1125 has reached Phase 2 clinical trial in chronic inflammatory conditions such as unstable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and atopic dermatitis, and Phase 3 for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome [15] (see NCT02858453). Click here to link to's full list of AQX-1125 trials. | View clinical data
Bioactivity Comments: AQX-1125 activates INPP5D enzyme activity by 20% (reducing the KM from 214 (control) to 180 [25]. This reduction in KM is concentration-dependent, but the compound has no effect on the enzyme's turnover constant (kcat) or maximum velocity (Vmax), which is indicative of allosteric modulation [25]. | View biological activity
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 2 clinical candidate for atopic dermatitis.
Clinical Use: OC000459 is being evaluated in several Phase 2 clinical trials in various inflammatory and allergic conditions including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Click here to link to a list of Phase 2 OC000459 trials registered with | View clinical data
Bioactivity Comments: OC000459 inhibits mast cell-dependent activation of human Th2 lymphocytes and eosinophils [17]. It does not antagonise ligand binding at any of the other prostanoid receptors [17]. | View biological activity
Immuno Disease Comments: Active Phase 2 study NCT01941537.
Clinical Use: Fezakinumab (ILV-094) has reached Phase 2 for atopic dermatitis (NCT01941537 ongoing), rheumatoid arthritis (NCT00883896 completed) and Phase 1 for psoriasis (NCT00563524 completed). | View clinical data
Bioactivity Comments: Fezakinumab shows cross-species reactivity, blocking IL-22 receptor activation and cellular proliferation induced by murine, monkey and rat IL-22 in addition to the human cytokine [8]. | View biological activity
Immuno Disease Comments: Phase 3 clinical candidate for AD- see NCT03568318
Clinical Use: Upadacitinib (ABT-494) completed successful Phase 3 clinical evaluation for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [7,13,24], and was granted FDA approval in August 2019 and EMA approval in December 2019, as a treatment for patients with moderate-severe active RA that is inadequately controlled by [6]. Evaluation of upadacitinib's potential in additional immune-mediated conditions (psoriatic arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, atopic dermatitis, SLE and temporal arteritis) are ongoing [18,20,27]. Click here to link to's list of ABT-494 studies.
Abbvie reported (in a press release) that upadacitinib met its primary and secondary endpoints in Phase 3 evaluation in psoriatic arthritis (October 2019). No new safety risks were detected. Depending on the dose administered, 25-29% of patients achieved minimal disease activity at week 24 of the study. Formal publication of these results will follow.
FDA approval was expanded in May 2023, to include treatment of moderate-severe active Crohn's disease that has not responded to anti-TNFα drugs. | View clinical data
Bioactivity Comments: In a kinase screening panel, only two other kinases, Rock1 and Rock2 have IC50s below 1000nM [28]. | View biological activity
Immuno Disease Comments: Approved drug for AD, which mediates immune suppression by inhibiting activity of the immunokinase JAK1.
Clinical Use: Abrocitinib (PF-04965842) was advanced to clinical trials for autoimmune conditions, and reached Phase 3 evaluation for atopic dermatitis and Phase 2 for plaque psoriasis (NCT02201524). Results from the psoriasis trial have been published [19], and these indicated that PF-04965842 improved disease symptoms and was well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Further development for psoriasis has been terminated by the sponsor (Pfizer) for business reasons. Development in moderate to severe atopic dermatitis is continuing in Pfizer's JAK1 Atopic Dermatitis Efficacy and Safety (JADE) program, which incluides the JADE MONO-1 (NCT03349060) and JADE MONO-2 (NCT03575871) trials. Results demonstrating significant efficacy in the JADE MONO-1 study were published in July 2020 [22], and similarly supportive results from JADE MONO-2 followed in August 2020 [21].

Abrocitinib was first approved for clinical use in 2021. Under these authorisations it is indicated as a treatment for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in adult patients who are candidates for systemic therapy. The FDA's approval as a treatment for atopic dermatitis was granted in January 2022. | View clinical data


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