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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

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Target id: 1614

Nomenclature: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

Abbreviated Name: ACE2

Family: M2: Angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE and ACE2)

Gene and Protein Information Click here for help
Species TM AA Chromosomal Location Gene Symbol Gene Name Reference
Human 1 805 Xp22.2 ACE2 angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Mouse 1 805 X 76.12 cM Ace2 angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Rat 1 805 Xq14 Ace2 angiotensin converting enzyme 2
Previous and Unofficial Names Click here for help
ACE-related carboxypeptidase | renal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 | angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2
Database Links Click here for help
Specialist databases
MEROPS M02.006 (Hs)
Other databases
ChEMBL Target
DrugBank Target
Ensembl Gene
Entrez Gene
Human Protein Atlas
KEGG Enzyme
Enzyme Reaction Click here for help
EC Number:
Binding dissociation constants for SARS-CoVs (Kd) (Human)
SARS-CoV-2 (1.2 nM); SARS-CoV (5 nM); Binding of hACE2 ectodomain to immobilised SB domains of the viral strains in a biolayer interferometry assay.  [18]
Endogenous substrates (Human)
angiotensin I (AGT, P01019) > angiotensin-(1-9) (AGT, P01019)  [2]

Download all structure-activity data for this target as a CSV file go icon to follow link

Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
XNT [PMID: 18391097] Small molecule or natural product Hs Activation 4.7 pEC50 5
pEC50 4.7 (EC50 2.01x10-5 M) [5]
Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
BCY15291 Peptide Hs Inhibition 9.4 pKd 4
pKd 9.4 (Kd 4.4x10-10 M) [4]
Description: Binding affinity for hACE2
compound 28 [PMID: 18324760] Small molecule or natural product Primary target of this compound Hs Inhibition 9.9 pKi 14
pKi 9.9 (Ki 1.3x10-10 M) [14]
BCY15291 Peptide Hs Inhibition 9.1 pKi 4
pKi 9.1 (Ki 8.9x10-10 M) [4]
DX600 Peptide Hs Inhibition 8.6 pKi 7
pKi 8.6 (Ki 2.8x10-9 M) [7]
DX600 Peptide Mm Inhibition 5.9 pKi 8
pKi 5.9 (Ki 1.2x10-6 M) [8]
Description: Binding affinity to ACE2 on mouse mononuclear cells
MLN-4760 Small molecule or natural product Primary target of this compound Ligand has a PDB structure Hs Inhibition 9.4 pIC50 14
pIC50 9.4 (IC50 4.4x10-10 M) [14]
View species-specific inhibitor tables
Other Binding Ligands
Key to terms and symbols Click column headers to sort
Ligand Sp. Action Value Parameter Reference
CPS4 Peptide Hs Binding 6.2 pIC50 1
pIC50 6.2 (IC50 6.35x10-7 M) [1]
Abz-Ser-Pro-Tyr(NO2)-OH Peptide Hs Binding - - 19
Immuno Process Associations
Immuno Process:  Barrier integrity
Immuno Process:  Inflammation
Immuno Process:  Immune regulation
Immuno Process:  Cytokine production & signalling
Tissue Distribution Click here for help
Spermatogonia, leydig and sertoli cells
Species:  Human
Technique:  Single-cell RNA sequencing
Nasal goblet and ciliated airway cells
Species:  Human
Technique:  Single-cell RNA-sequencing
References:  17
General Comments
ACE2 as a primary docking site for the novel coronavirus (officially named SARS-CoV-2) that was identified as the cause of the respiratory disease outbreak in Wuhan in late 2019 [3,6,10-11,15,18]. SARS-CoV-2 was referred to as 2019-nCoV, or Wuhan coronavirus prior to formal naming by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus, and in common with the original SARS-CoV, the viral spike protein has been shown to engage ACE2 for viral entry [12-13,16,18].

ACE2 converts angiotensin II (Ang1-8) to angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7), with Ang1-7 acting as a functional antagonist of Ang1-8. Enhancing ACE2 activity by exogenous administration of ACE2 might be beneficial in human diseases with pathologically elevated Ang1-8, such as may occur when ACE2 is disrupted during the SARS-CoV-2 infection process. Soluble human ACE2, either exogenous recombinant protein or upregulated release of membrane bound endogenous ACE2 via activation of the sheddase ADAM17, could act as a decoy for SARS-CoV-2 viruses, as potential mechanisms to combat infection and/or pathophysiological effects [13]. Soluble ACE2 has theoretical potential to both reduce infection capacity and to reduce lung tissue damage during ongoing infection. GSK have already completed a Phase 2 study recombinant human ACE2 protein (GSK2586881; licensed from Apeiron Biologics who named it APN01) to determine its effects in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [9]. GSK2586881 modulated the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) as expected, but the trial was terminated following a planned futility analysis, and rights to the agent were returned to Apeiron Biologics. A pilot clinical trial (NCT04287686; First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University) that was planned to gather preliminary biologic, physiologic, and clinical data on the effects of using APN01 as a decoy for SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19 was withdrawn before recruitment began. Apeiron Biologics are continuing with APN01, and have begun recruiting for their Phase 2 study NCT04335136.


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1. Adhikary P, Kandel S, Mamani UF, Mustafa B, Hao S, Qiu J, Fetse J, Liu Y, Ibrahim NM, Li Y et al.. (2021) Discovery of Small Anti-ACE2 Peptides to Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity. Adv Ther (Weinh), 4 (7): 2100087. [PMID:34179347]

2. Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N, Donovan M, Woolf B, Robison K, Jeyaseelan R et al.. (2000) A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. Circ Res, 87 (5): E1-9. [PMID:10969042]

3. Gralinski LE, Menachery VD. (2020) Return of the Coronavirus: 2019-nCoV. Viruses, 12 (2). DOI: 10.3390/v12020135 [PMID:31991541]

4. Harman MAJ, Stanway SJ, Scott H, Demydchuk Y, Bezerra GA, Pellegrino S, Chen L, Brear P, Lulla A, Hyvönen M et al.. (2023) Structure-Guided Chemical Optimization of Bicyclic Peptide (Bicycle) Inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2. J Med Chem, 66 (14): 9881-9893. [PMID:37433017]

5. Hernández Prada JA, Ferreira AJ, Katovich MJ, Shenoy V, Qi Y, Santos RA, Castellano RK, Lampkins AJ, Gubala V, Ostrov DA et al.. (2008) Structure-based identification of small-molecule angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activators as novel antihypertensive agents. Hypertension, 51 (5): 1312-7. [PMID:18391097]

6. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Krüger N, Müller M, Drosten C, Pöhlmann S. (2020) The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells. BioRxiv,: 929042. DOI: 10.1101/2020.01.31.929042

7. Huang L, Sexton DJ, Skogerson K, Devlin M, Smith R, Sanyal I, Parry T, Kent R, Enright J, Wu QL et al.. (2003) Novel peptide inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. J Biol Chem, 278 (18): 15532-40. [PMID:12606557]

8. Joshi S, Balasubramanian N, Vasam G, Jarajapu YP. (2016) Angiotensin converting enzyme versus angiotensin converting enzyme-2 selectivity of MLN-4760 and DX600 in human and murine bone marrow-derived cells. Eur J Pharmacol, 774: 25-33. [PMID:26851370]

9. Khan A, Benthin C, Zeno B, Albertson TE, Boyd J, Christie JD, Hall R, Poirier G, Ronco JJ, Tidswell M et al.. (2017) A pilot clinical trial of recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care, 21 (1): 234. [PMID:28877748]

10. Lei C, Fu W, Qian K, Li T, Zhang S, Ding M, Hu S. (2020) Potent neutralization of 2019 novel coronavirus by recombinant ACE2-Ig. BioRxiv,: 929976. DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.01.929976

11. Letko M, Munzter V. (2020) Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for lineage B β-coronaviruses, including 2019-nCoV. BiorXiv, (22 January). DOI: 10.1101/2020.01.22.915660

12. Li F, Li W, Farzan M, Harrison SC. (2005) Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor. Science, 309 (5742): 1864-8. [PMID:16166518]

13. Magrone T, Magrone M, Jirillo E. (2020) Focus on Receptors for Coronaviruses with Special Reference to Angiotensin- Converting Enzyme 2 as a Potential Drug Target - A Perspective. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets, 20 (6): 807-811. [PMID:32338224]

14. Mores A, Matziari M, Beau F, Cuniasse P, Yiotakis A, Dive V. (2008) Development of potent and selective phosphinic peptide inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. J Med Chem, 51 (7): 2216-26. [PMID:18324760]

15. Peng Z, Shi Z-L. (2020) Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin. BiorXiv, (23 January). DOI: 10.1101/2020.01.22.914952

16. Song W, Gui M, Wang X, Xiang Y. (2018) Cryo-EM structure of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein in complex with its host cell receptor ACE2. PLoS Pathog, 14 (8): e1007236. [PMID:30102747]

17. Sungnak W, Huang N, Becavin C, Berg M, HCA Lung Biological Network. (2020) SARS-CoV-2 Entry Genes Are Most Highly Expressed in Nasal Goblet and Ciliated Cells within Human Airways. arxivorg, Preprint.

18. Walls AC, Park YJ, Tortorici MA, Wall A, McGuire AT, Veesler D. (2020) Structure, Function, and Antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein. Cell, 181 (2): 281-292.e6. [PMID:32155444]

19. Yan ZH, Ren KJ, Wang Y, Chen S, Brock TA, Rege AA. (2003) Development of intramolecularly quenched fluorescent peptides as substrates of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Anal Biochem, 312 (2): 141-7. [PMID:12531198]

How to cite this page

M2: Angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE and ACE2): Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Last modified on 28/07/2023. Accessed on 25/07/2024. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY,